The most common triadic grouping used with the Enneagram personality types is called the centers of intelligence. It groups together types 567, 234, and 891.
Enneagram personality type authors and teachers apply a variety of different labels and concepts to the centers. This can lead not only to varied interpretations of each center but also varied interpretations for how each type uses its primary center. Let's take a look at the most common labeling of the centers first.
Head, Heart, and Gut
The three centers of intelligence for the Enneagram types are commonly called the head or head-based center, the heart of heart-based center, and the gut or body-based center.
The types pointed to by the triangle on the Enneagram symbol (3, 6, and 9) lie in the middle of each center. The types on either side of 3, 6, and 9 make up the two other types in those centers.
- 567: Head or Head-Based Types
- 234: Heart or Heart-Based Types
- 891: Gut or Body-Based Types
The Head Types
Although the head types can be thought of in terms of reasoning, analyzing, and other typical thinking functions, a useful distinction from the other two centers can be made in terms of anticipating and preparing for future possibilities.
This may involve gathering data and facts in order to better predict outcomes, preparing for negative potentialities that might occur, and planning or pursuing activities that provide enjoyment and avoid discomfort.
The Heart Types
The heart types are focused on interpreting, expressing, and reacting to one’s own emotions or the emotions of others. More specifically, the heart center focuses on what's emotionally significant in the sense that emotions are an indication of how strongly a person resonates with or against something or someone.
This may involve being attentive to the emotional needs and desires of others, seeking emotional affirmation for oneself from others, and expressing one's own unique emotional impression of the world.
The Gut or Body Types
There are several ways to interpret what the gut or body types represent. They may be thought of in terms of sensory-somatic (bodily felt sensation), sensory-motor (physical movement and activity), or instinctual (gut decision making).
This may involve taking action based on one's gut instinct, getting pulled along by the agenda of others, and actively trying to correct what's seen as wrong in the world.
Fear, Shame, and Anger
The three centers are sometimes presented in terms of an underlying emotional energy at work within the center: fear, shame, and anger.
- 567: Fear Triad
- 234: Shame Triad
- 891: Anger Triad
While fear, shame, and anger are the primary labels associated with each center, variations of those emotional energies and sometimes altogether different emotions may also be associated with a given center by different teachers and authors.
The Fear Triad
The fear triad consists of types 5, 6, and 7. Fear for these types involves the head center. It can be thought of as a negative anticipation of future possibilities and wanting to prepare for or avoid those possibilities.
This may involve learning as much as possible in order to feel competent and knowledgeable, imagining worst-case scenarios and preparing for them, and having alternatives available to avoid being trapped in discomfort or pain.
The Shame Triad
The shame triad consists of types 2, 3, and 4. Shame for these types involves the heart center. It can be thought of as a feeling of deficiency for not living up to a more idealized sense of self.
This may involve initiating connection with others to avoid feeling unlovable or unimportant in the lives of others, finding value and worth through performance and accomplishment, and finding significance by cultivating and expressing one's uniqueness.
The Anger Triad
The anger triad consists of types 8, 9, and 1. Anger for these types involves the gut or body center. It can be thought of as an energy of will that pushes against obstacles to create movement or resist being pushed.
This may involve pushing through obstacles to get what one wants, stubbornly resisting attempts to be pushed in an undesired direction, and getting people to see what's right and correcting things not done right.
234 as Image Types
Type 3 is said to be the most image conscious type. In fact, the passion ascribed to type 3 through Ichazo’s Enneagram of Passions is deceit and Naranjo associated the type with a marketing orientation. Deceit is often taken to mean a misrepresentation of oneself or a packaging of oneself to gain recognition or acceptance within a particular group or for a particular audience. Image becomes another means for successfully navigating the environment or culture in which one is trying to succeed.
Because it can be difficult to reconcile the idea of type 3 as a heart or feeling type, many authors and teachers describe the 234 center as image-based. When type 3 is presented as the core type of the image triad, types 2 and 4 are reinterpreted as image types as well. This is often done by associating shame or feeling with an image that each type is trying to maintain or present.
For example, type 2 might maintain an image of self-sacrifice and generosity that hides a feeling of being unlovable while type 4 might cover over an internalized feeling of lack and defectiveness by presenting an image of uniqueness or authenticity.
891 as Self-Forgetting Types
Type 9 is said to be the most self-forgetting of the nine types. With a tendency to go along to get along, it’s easy for them to lose sight of their own agenda. It often seems that the agenda of others is more important than the agenda of the type 9. There can also be a tendency to avoid looking too closely at things that might create disruptions or discomfort in the type 9 life. As such, there sometimes develops a habitual avoidance of self-awareness in favor of keeping things flowing smoothly or comfortably.
It can be difficult to see type 9 as anger-based when it's said that type 9 goes to sleep to anger. Type 9 can also have trouble initiating action which can make it seem out of place in the gut or doing center. Because of this the 891 center is sometimes labeled as self-forgetting to better align it with type 9. Types 8 and 1 are then reinterpreted as self-forgetting types as well.
This can sometimes create confusion with the other labels used with that center (e.g., when the labels emphasize action, movement, and anger). When self-forgetting is emphasized with types 8 and 1, introspection and self-awareness is described as being displaced or avoided (i.e., forgotten) by focusing instead on making things happen and getting things done.
Behavioral, Emotional, and Mental Centers
While it can be useful to group the nine types into three centers of three types each, it’s important to avoid the trap of seeing the three types in a given center as using that center in the same way. In other words, it’s important to remember that each type uses its primary center differently than the other two types in that same center.
The core focus approach to the Enneagram types sees the types not in terms of personality but in terms of a habitual focus that has a strong influence upon personality. Through this approach the centers are described as the Behavioral Center (891), the Emotional Center (234), and the Mental Center (567).
This not only ties each type directly back to its primary center (behavioral, emotional, mental) but also clearly describes how each type uses that center differently from the other types in the same center.
Type 8: Behavioral Assertiveness - pushes through obstacles to get what's wanted.
Type 9: Behavioral Accommodation - yields to or joins in with the flow of movement.
Type 1: Behavioral Correctness - discerns right from wrong and acts accordingly.
Type 2: Emotional Attentiveness - connects to others through emotional empathy.
Type 3: Emotional Affirmation - finds validation through achievement and recognition.
Type 4: Emotional Authenticity - expresses what feels true and real for oneself.
Type 5: Mental Objectivity - observes the world by pulling back from it and watching.
Type 6: Mental Questioning - probes to alleviate doubts and find what can be trusted.
Type 7: Mental Anticipation - avoids limitations while exploring interesting possibilities.
Looking at all three centers for a person
While it's useful to understand a type better by understanding how it uses its center, an approach can also be taken where all three centers are explored for a person. There are several concepts that incorporate this approach such as Trifix, Tritype, and TruType. In order to avoid any trademark or copyright issues I'll refer to this approach of finding all three centers for a person as the tri-center approach.
With the tri-center approach an individual identifies a dominat gut type, heart type, and head type. There can also be an order of preference for those three dominant types or centers as well.
For example, an individual may identify their primary type as type 1. This would mean their dominant gut type (8, 9, or 1) is also type 1. Their dominant heart type (2, 3, or 4) may be type 3 and their dominant head type (5, 6, or 7) may be type 7.
As for a preferred order of preference, type 1 would be the 1st type since it is their primary type overall. If type 7 were preferred over type 3 then the order of the three types would be 1-7-3.