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Determines Basic Type, Candidate Types, Preferred Wings, Tri-Center (aka trifix, tritype)
The Enneagram symbol and the types have two separate histories. The symbol came to us by way of G.I. Gurdjieff and the Fourth Way with purported Sufi origins. The types originated with Oscar Ichazo.
A psychiatrist named Claudio Naranjo learned of Ichazo's ego types in 1970 and evolved them into what he called "ennea-types" which form the basis for the nine Enneagram personality types we use today.
Elements of the Enneagram types were borrowed from a number of different spiritual and psychological traditions. Today, the Enneagram types are used in some Christian circles.
Oscar Ichazo developed nine ego-types which were based on associated Enneagrams he created. There were a total of 108 Enneagrams according to Ichazo. Five of those Enneagrams provided a foundation for what evolved into the Enneagram personality types used today. The five Enneagrams had to do with fixations, traps, holy ideas, passions, and virtues.
Ichazo wasn't clear on where he got the Enneagram symbol, but did claim that he alone developed the labels for the Enneagrams that he used. It's well accepted that Ichazo developed the ego-types and associated Enneagrams that would later evolve through the teachings of a psychiatrist named Claudio Naranjo into the personality types of today.
G.I. Gurdjieff is purported to have learned of the Enneagram diagram from the Sufis during his search for hidden knowledge in the Middle East.
This is depicted in the movie Meetings with Remarkable Men where the dancers move along the inner lines of the Enneagram diagram.
Note that Gurdjieff didn't use the Enneagram with personality types. He used the Enneagram in terms of movement and process. It was decades later that Oscar Ichazo repurposed the Enneagram to represent types.