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Claudio Naranjo's Enneatypes: Origins of the personality types


The origins of the Enneagram personality types are sometimes obscured by speculations about where the symbol came from. However, the origin of the types has nothing to do with the history of the symbol.

The Enneagram personality types evolved from the work of two men in the latter half of the 20th century. Oscar Ichazo created the Enneagrams of fixation, traps, holy ideas, passions, and virtues which associated ego-types with the Enneagram symbol and a psychiatrist named Claudio Naranjo evolved those enneagrams into the personality types we use today (calling them enneatypes).

Ichazo's enneagrams meet modern psychology

Claudio Naranjo learned of Oscar Ichazo's enneagrams when Naranjo attended a training retreat with others from the United States in Arica, Chile around 1970. The enneagrams were but a small part of the material presented by Ichazo. Ichazo later brought his training to the United States through the Arica Institute in 1971. Naranjo incorporated the enneagrams into his own teachings and evolved the enneagrams along a separate path from Ichazo.

DSM III Personality Disorders

Naranjo expanded upon Ichazo's enneagrams, or ego-types as the five associated enneagrams can be referred to collectively, through his own background in psychology and other understandings. One way he did this was to relate Ichazo's ego-types to the personality disorders of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) used by psychologists. This isn't to say that the Enneagram types are disorders in themselves but that the disorders represent where a type may go when psychologically unhealthy. Mapping the types to the DSM also offered a way to correlate psychological traits with the types, a sort of Rosetta Stone between modern psychology and the Enneagram types.

Things to note about which Enneagram type correlates with which personality disorder:

  • Naranjo wasn't always consistent with which type he associated with which personality disorder.
  • The DSM is not static but has been updated from time to time over the years so the personality disorders have changed over time.
  • Other authors and teachers of the Enneagram types may interpret the correlations between the types and the DSM differently from Naranjo and each other.

Naranjo's enneatypes 

Naranjo called his version of the Enneagram types "enneatypes" and described them in terms of a trait structure (what follows comes from his book Ennea-type Structures).

  1. Angry Virtue - Anger and Perfectionism
    • Anger
    • Criticality
    • Demandingness
    • Dominance
    • Perfectionism
    • Over-Control
    • Self-Criticism
    • Discipline
  2. Egocentric Generosity - Pride and Histrionism
    • Pride
    • Love Need
    • Hedonism
    • Seductiveness
    • Assertiveness
    • Nurturance and False Abundance
    • Histrionism
    • Impressionable Emotionality
  3. Success through Appearances - Vanity, Inauthenticity, and the "Marketing Orientation"
    • Attention Need and Vanity
    • Achieving Orientation
    • Social Sophistication and Skill
    • Cultivation of Sexual Attractiveness
    • Deceit and Image Manipulation
    • Other-Directedness
    • Pragmatism
    • Active Vigilance
    • Superficiality
  4. Seeking Happiness through Pain - Envy and the Masochistic Personality
    • Envy
    • Poor Self-Image
    • Focus on Suffering
    • "Moving Toward"
    • Nurturance
    • Emotionality
    • Competitive Arrogance
    • Refinement
    • Artistic Interests
    • Strong Superego
  5. Seeking Wholeness through Isolation - Avarice and Pathological Detachment
    • Retentiveness
    • Not Giving
    • Pathological Detachment
    • Fear of Engulfment
    • Autonomy
    • Feelinglessness
    • Postponement of Action
    • Cognitive Orientation
    • Sense of Emptiness
    • Guilt
    • High Superego
    • Negativism
    • Hypersensitivity
  6. The Persecuted Persecutor - Fear and Suspiciousness
    • Fear, Cowardice and Anxiety
    • Over-Alert Hyperintentionality
    • Theoretical Orientation
    • Ingratiating Friendliness
    • Rigidity
    • Pugnacity
    • Orientation to Authority and Ideals
    • Accusation of Self and Others
    • Doubt and Ambivalence
  7. Opportunistic Idealism - Gluttony, Fraudulence, and Narcissism
    • Gluttony
    • Hedonistic Permissiveness
    • Rebelliousness
    • Lack of Discipline
    • Imaginary Wish Fulfillment
    • Seductive Pleasingness
    • Narcissism
    • Persuasiveness
    • Fraudulence
  8. Coming on Strong - Lust and Vindictive Arrogance
    • Lust
    • Punitiveness
    • Rebelliousness
    • Dominance
    • Insensitivity
    • Conning and Cynicism
    • Exhibitionism (Narcissism)
    • Autonomy
    • Sensorimotor Dominance
  9. Going with the Stream - Accidia, the Passion for Comfort and the Overadjusted Disposition
    • Psychological Inertia
    • Over-Adaptation
    • Resignation
    • Generosity
    • Ordinariness
    • Robotic Habit-Boundedness
    • Distractibility

Most, if not all, people teaching and writing about the Enneagram personality types learned of them directly or indirectly from Naranjo, often adding their own take on the types in the process.

Quick Guide to the Enneagram

This page is part of the Quick Guide to the Enneagram available on this website. For more information about any particular Enneagram type or the many concepts and history of the Enneagram types visit the Quick Guide main page.

The Nine Enneagram Types x
The Nine Enneagram Types