The Enneagram instincts are self-preservation, sexual (also called one-to-one and intimate), and social. Although rarely mentioned, the instincts are used with the Enneagram types in two quite different ways: the subtype approach and the stacking approach.
These blog posts are thoughts I have about the Enneagram types and related projects I'm working on. Many of these relate to the Enneagram User Guide series of books. If you'd like to share your thoughts about one of the blog posts then click on the discussion forum topic(s) below the full post.
Short answer: less than 50 years old at the time of this post. You may have heard that the Enneagram personality types are an ancient system going back thousands of years. I heard that too, but I looked for proof for the past 20 years or so. I found nothing except proof to the contrary.
I've posted in the past about using Enneagram tests in general. This post is about the methodology used in a test and it's purpose. Let's take a look at the methodologies used by the different authors and teachers in their tests (and then I'll get to my methodology and reasoning).